By James C. Bobrow, MD
This part underwent significant revision for the 2008-2009 version. part eleven stories the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. It additionally covers the epidemiology of cataracts and their assessment and administration in adults. furthermore, an summary of lens and cataract surgical procedure is equipped, issues of cataract surgical procedure are mentioned, and cataract surgical procedure in distinct occasions is explored. comprises many new photographs.
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Additional resources for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 11: Lens and Cataract (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
DNA is easily damaged by free radicals. Some of the damage to the lens is reparable, but some may be permanent. Free radicals can also attack the proteins or membrane lipids in the cortex. No repair mechanisms are known to ameliorate such damage, which increases with time. In lens fibers, where protein synthesis no longer takes place, free radical damage may lead to polymerization and cross-linking of lipids and proteins, resulting in an increase in the water-insoluble protein content. The lens is equipped with several enzymes that protect against free radical or oxygen damage.
Figure 4-13 Congenital nuclear pia. Eye Care Skills for the Primary ogy; 1987) cataract. Care Physician (Reproduced from Day SH. Understanding Series [slidescriptJ. San Francisco' American and Preventing AmblyoAcademy of Ophthalmol- of severity. Lens opacification may involve the complete nucleus or be limited to discrete layers within the nucleus. Eyes with congenital nuclear cataracts tend to be microphthalmic, Capsular Capsular cataracts are small opacifications of the lens epithelium and anterior lens capsule that spare the cortex.
Tunica Vasculosa lentis At about 1 month of gestation, the hyaloid artery, which enters the eye at the optic disc, branches to form a network of capillaries, the tunica vasculosa lent is, on the posterior surface of the lens capsule (Fig 4-3). These capillaries grow toward the equator of the lens, where they anastomose with a second network of capillaries, called the anterior pupillary membrane, which derives from the ciliary veins and which covers the anterior surface of the lens. At approximately 9 weeks of gestation, the capillary network surrounding the lens is fully developed; it disappears by an orderly process of programmed cell death shortly before birth.