By George A. Cioffi MD
Themes on glaucoma comprise the epidemiologic elements; hereditary and genetic elements; intraocular strain and aqueous humor dynamics; and medical review, scientific administration and surgical treatment. includes a number of photographs illustrating ailment entities and surgical thoughts. final significant revision 2008 2009.
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 10: Glaucoma (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The best method for describing the angle is to use a standardized grading system or draw the iris contour, the location of the iris insertion, and the angle between the iris and the trabecular meshwork. A variety of go nioscopic grading systems have been developed. All grading systems facilitate standard ized description of angle structures and abbreviate that description. Keep in mind that, with abbreviated descriptions, some details of the angle structure will be eliminated. The most commonly used gonioscopic grading systems are the Shaffer and Spaeth systems.
Increased CCT may give an artifiCially high lOP measurement; decreased CCT, an artifiCially low reading. lOP measured afte r photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) may be reduced because of changes in the corneal thickness induced by th ese and other refractive procedures. 5 mm Hg difference between actual lOP and the lOP measured with a Goldmann tonometer. However, because the relationship of measured lOP and CCT is not li near, it is important to remember that such correction factors as this are only estimates at best.
The cell bodies of the RGCs lie in the ganglion cell layer of the retina. The intraorbital optic nerve is divided into 2 components: the anterior optic nerve and the posterior optic nerve. The anterior optic nerve extends from the retinal surface to the retrolaminar region, just where the nerve exits the posterior aspect of the globe. 5 mm; it expands to approxi· mately 3-4 mm immediately upon exit ing the glo be. The increase in size is accounted for by axonal myelination, glial tissue, and the beginning of the leptomeninges (optic nerve sheath).