By John Bryan Holds MD
Info the anatomy of the orbit and adnexa, and emphasizes a realistic method of the overview and administration of orbital and eyelid issues, together with malpositions and involutional alterations. Updates present details on congenital, inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic and disturbing stipulations of the orbit and accent buildings. Covers key points of orbital, eyelid and facial surgical procedure. contains a variety of new colour photographs. significant revision 2011-2012.
Read or Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course) PDF
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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 7: Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrimal System (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
The phys ician should also palpate regional lymph nodes. The di fferen ti al d iag nosis fo r a palpable mass in th e supero nasal quadran t may include mu cocele, mucopyocele, encep halocele, neurofibroma, dermoid cyst, or lympho ma. A palpable mass in the superotemporal quadrant may be a prolapsed lacri_mal gland, a dermoid cyst, a lacrimal glan d tum or, lymp homa, or NSO I. A lesio n behind the equator of the globe is usuall y not palpable. CHAPTER 2: Evaluation of Orbital Disorders. 25 Pulsations of the eye are caused by transmission of the vasc ular pulse through the orbit.
Eye (Lond). 2006;20( I 0); 1196- 1206. Table 4-' Differential Diagnosis of Major Orbital Inflammations Infectious (identify the anatomic location as preseptal or orbital cellulitis) Bacterial (identify the so urce) Direct inocul ation (trauma , surgery) Spread from adjacent tissue (sinusi tis, dacryocystitis) Spread from dista nt focus (bacteremia, pneumonia) Opportunistic (necrotizi ng fasciitis, tubercu los is) Fungal Zygomycosis Aspergill osis Parasitic Echinococcosis Cysti ce rcosis Autoimmune Thyroid eye disease (TED) Vasculitic Giant cell arteritis Wegener granulomatosis Polyarteriti s nodosa Vasculitis associated with co nn ective tissue disorders Granulomatous Sarcoidosis Nonspecific orbital inflammation (NSOI) (diagnosis of exclusion) 39 40 • Orbit, Eyelids, and Lacrima l System Infectious Inflammation Cellulitis T he most co mmon cause of celJulitis is bacterial infection.
On average, the globes are mo re prominent in men than in women and more prominent in black patients than in white patients. An asymnle try of g reater than 2 mm between an individual patient's eyes suggests proptosis o r enophthalmos. Proptosis may best be appreciated clin ica ll y when the exami ner looks up from below with the patient's head tilted back (th e so-called lVorms-eye vielV; Fig 2-2). Pseudoproptosis is ei th er the simu lati on of abnormal prominence of the eye or a true asymmetry that is not th e resu lt of increased orbital contents.