By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Rod Foroozan MD
Offers a symptom-driven method of the prognosis and therapy of significant neuro-ophthalmic stipulations. With the focal point at the sufferer, this booklet emphasizes exam and acceptable adjunctive reports, together with a dialogue of diagnostic imaging modalities, and leads the reader in the course of the occasionally refined manifestations of neuro-ophthalmic disorder to anatomical localization of lesions and definitive prognosis. an outline of the anatomy of visible pathways is observed by way of many illustrations.
Upon of completion of part five, readers will be capable to:
- Describe a symptom-driven method of sufferers with universal neuro-ophthalmic court cases as a way to formulate a suitable differential diagnosis
- opt for the main applicable exams and imaging, in keeping with symptomatology, to diagnose and deal with neuro-ophthalmic issues in an economical manner
- examine eye move issues and the ocular motor process
Read Online or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology PDF
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Additional resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology
The lacrimal artery (LA) runs parallel to the lacrimal branch of V1 in the superior lateral orbital roof to reach the lacrimal gland. It also gives off a branch that forms the anterior ciliary artery of the lateral rectus muscle and reaches the anterior segment at the muscle's insertion. The frontal artery runs within the superior orbit, paralleling the frontal branch of V1 to branch and terminate as the supraorbital and supratrochlear arteries, which, along with the LA, supply the eyelid. The next branches leaving the OphA are the superior and inferior muscular arteries.
To perform these tasks, 2 basic human eye movements exist: I. gaze shift 2. gaze stabilization These movements can be further divided into 6 functional systems or classes (see Anatomy and Clinical Testing of the Functional Classes of Eye Movements in Chapter 7): 1. vestibular 2. visual fixation 3. optokinetic 4. smooth pursuit CHAPTER 1: Neuro-Ophthalmic Anatomy • 33 s. saccades 6. vergence 4 . Each system appears to be under the control of-and modulated by-different regions of the brain (cortex) and brainstem, with considerable anatomical and functional overlap.
The underlying white matter is heavily myelinated. The VS area, which corresponds to the medial temporal visual region, receives ipsilateral input from Vl and direct input from the M-cell layers of the LGN. The neurons here encode the speed and direction of moving stimuli. This sensory area is likely the origin of pursuit movements and thus links the afferent and efferent pathways. Compared with those ofVl, the receptive fields are larger. The superior colliculus receives afferent input both directly from the anterior visual pathways and secondarily from the calcarine cortex.