By Francois Crouzet
Книга A historical past of the ecu economic system, 1000-2000 A background of the eu financial system, 1000-2000Книги Экономика Автор: Francois Crouzet Год издания: 2001 Формат: pdf Издат.:University of Virginia Press Страниц: 329 Размер: 2,4 ISBN: 0813920256 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:Considering Europe as an entire instead of as a mosaic of person states, François Crouzet offers right here an obtainable, enticing heritage of the ecu economic climate throughout the moment millennium. Stressing the typical monetary associations shared over the years by way of the several areas of Europe and the networks of relatives that experience associated them, Crouzet examines pan- ecu alterations and integration instead of purely the actual stories of person nations. A heritage of the ecu economic system, 1000-2000 is going past addressing the historic ramifications of exchange within the eu economic system to surround difficulties resembling the diffusion of expertise, the migration of capital and exertions, diasporas and minorities, and nationwide variety. via stressing the old origins of the force towards eu integration and its development the entire method to the beginning of the euro, Crouzet promises an unique and complete review of eu fiscal historical past.
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Additional resources for A History of the European Economy, 1000-2000
By 1200, plowing with horses was widespread in northern France, in the Low Countries, and in southern England. Meanwhile, the harnessing of oxen also improved, as their yoke was put on their horns and then on their forehead instead of their withers; because several pairs of them could be harnessed in ﬁle, they were often preferred to work heavy soils. Another innovation of Carolingian times (it was used in the ninth century on large estates in fertile areas of northern France) was the threeﬁeld rotation: a ﬁeld was cultivated for two consecutive years (with one sowing in the fall, the next one in the spring) and then left fallow during the third, whereas formerly it had been left fallow every other year.
Indeed, from the late eleventh century, commercial expansion by Europeans went hand in hand with their military counteroffensive against Islam, especially the Crusades (and the reconquest of Sicily and Crete), which changed the political and economic balance of power to the advantage of Christians, so that Italian cities and merchants took over the longdistance Mediterranean trade. , Christians). Moreover, the Crusades stimulated shipbuilding—to transport crusaders and pilgrims—and the making of weapons, to the beneﬁt mainly of Italian cities.
By that time the three-ﬁeld rotation was practiced in regions from England to Poland, but not everywhere. The hilly regions of Atlantic and central Europe, which were unsuited to open ﬁelds, had small and enclosed ﬁelds cultivated with light plows, pulled by a single animal, on a two-ﬁeld rotation. In southern Europe, because of its dry climate, spring-sown cereals could not grow and ripen before the summer’s drought; with some exceptions, it had to keep to the old and less-productive two-ﬁeld rotation.