By Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)
Addressing a tremendous situation affecting thousands all over the world, this resource compiles the main useful and groundbreaking study at the etiology, review, and therapy of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). With full-color illustrations all through, this reference explores examine developments that experience led to novel treatments that provide sight saving, much less harmful varieties of remedy for exudative AMD, in addition to suggestions to avoid the development of non-exudative AMD. With 3 new chapters and expansive quantity of part updates, this resource offers the most recent experiences on OCT imaging, experimental remedies, new functions for thermal lasers, and gene remedy for AMD. The resource additionally summarizes stories from present scientific trials to stay the ultimate within the provision of take care of sufferers with this disabling disorder.
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The response results in unique antigen-speciﬁc immunologic effector cells (T and B lymphocytes) and unique antigen-speciﬁc soluble effector molecules (antibodies) whose aim is to remove the speciﬁc stimulating antigenic substance from the organism, and to ignore the presence of other irrelevant antigenic stimuli. The key concept is that an antigen (usually) represents an alien, completely foreign substance against which speciﬁc cells of immune system must generate, de novo, a speciﬁc receptor, which, in turn, must recognize a unique molecular structure in the antigen for which no preexisting gene was present.
In early AMD, macrophages have been detected along the choriocapillaris-side of Bruch’s membrane underlying areas of thick deposits. Processes from choroidal monocytes have been noted to insert into Bruch’s membrane deposits, presumably for the purpose of scavenging debris. The identity of these cells is uncertain, but they seem to lack typical phagocytic vacuoles and express human leukocyte antigen DR, suggesting that the cells may represent DC or nonactivated macrophages (22). In late AMD, macrophages and giant cells have been observed around choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM) and are numerous in excised CNVM, suggesting a role in promoting choroidal angiogenesis (50,53,174).
OVERVIEW OF BIOLOGY OF IMMUNOLOGY RELEVANT TO AMD Innate vs. Antigen-Specific Immunity In general, an immune response is a sequence of cellular and molecular events designed to rid the host of an offending stimulus, which usually represents a pathogenic organism, toxic substance, cellular debris, neoplastic cell, or other similar signal. Two broad categories of immune responses have been recognized: innate and antigen-speciﬁc immunity (1–3). Innate Immunity Innate immunity (also called “natural” immunity) is a pattern recognition response by certain cells of the immune system, typically macrophages and neutrophils, to identify broad groups of offensive stimuli, especially infectious agents, toxins or cellular debris from injury (4–6).