Download Algeria - French Morocco by U.S. Army Center for Military History PDF

By U.S. Army Center for Military History

Occasions bringing the USA military to North Africa had all started greater than a yr prior to the japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. For either the Axis and the Allies, the Mediterranean Sea zone was once one among doubtful precedence. at the Axis facet, the site of Italy made obvi-ous Rome’s curiosity within the quarter. however the enhanced German associate pursued pursuits 1000s of miles north. an analogous department of emphasis characterised the Allies. To the British the Mediterranean Sea was once the important hyperlink among the house islands and long-held Asian possessions in addition to center jap oil fields. To the american citizens, even if, the world had by no means been considered one of important nationwide curiosity and was once no longer visible because the most sensible path to Berlin. however the fall of France in June 1940 had additionally introduced a brand new size to the sector. The hand over of Paris left 120,000 French troops in West and North Africa and lots more and plenty of the French fleet in Atlantic and Mediterranean ports. either the Axis and Allies observed in a foreign country French forces because the decisive virtue that will let them in achieving their contradictory targets within the Mediterranean.

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Algeria - French Morocco

Occasions bringing the U.S. military to North Africa had all started greater than a yr prior to the japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. For either the Axis and the Allies, the Mediterranean Sea sector was once one in all doubtful precedence. at the Axis part, the positioning of Italy made obvi-ous Rome’s curiosity within the sector.

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Only at Safi and Algiers did lone sorties of French aircraft inflict damage, and both were quickly driven off. Naval gunfire provided essential support in neutralizing coastal batteries. In coordinating with friendly troop movements ashore, however, problems arose. Most landings took place near urban areas, which placed troops in civil-military minefields. Since Allied leaders looked forward to eventual French cooperation against the Axis, gunnery officers aboard ships and field commanders ashore had to exercise great care to avoid civilian housing as well as port facilities and oil supplies they hoped to use.

A more serious problem concerned transport of vehicles to shore. Because vehicles required deeper-draft landing craft than troops, sandbars that light troop-carrying boats overrode became obstacles to heavier tank and truck lighters. Even on beaches without sandbars, lighters frequently bottomed some distance from the shoreline and had to discharge vehicles into several feet of water, disabling electrical systems. Problems such as these provoked a spiral of unloading delays and forced troops ashore into a tactical disadvantage during the crucial early hours of the landings.

Because vehicles required deeper-draft landing craft than troops, sandbars that light troop-carrying boats overrode became obstacles to heavier tank and truck lighters. Even on beaches without sandbars, lighters frequently bottomed some distance from the shoreline and had to discharge vehicles into several feet of water, disabling electrical systems. Problems such as these provoked a spiral of unloading delays and forced troops ashore into a tactical disadvantage during the crucial early hours of the landings.

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