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By Richard F. Groeneveld

Groeneveld reports the conceptual and basic features of organizational impression over police discretion in box arrests. He reveals that street-level discretion by way of box officer

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C. riots in which the police were accused by numerous media outlets and protest organizers of using too much force too quickly to quell the actions of WTO rioters. This came on the heels of the Seattle riots that same year that found the police substantially undermanned and under-prepared for the mass of protesters that ultimately caused six million dollars in damage to the city. Once more, when the police were slow to respond to the crowd reactions of the Los Angeles Lakers NBA championship in 2000, critics quickly pointed out the cost in damage to property and public safety perception because of a lack of action and poor organizational leadership.

Election and city council supervision of the police function gradually gave way to the establishment of administrative boards, variously constituted, in an Police Discretion and Professional Policing 39 effort to assure both independence and some semblance of civilian control. These organizational patterns have, in turn, often led to an obscuring of responsibilities, resulting in a swing back to more direct control in the form of a movement for the appointment of a single executive, directly answerable to the elected mayor or, more recently, to a city manager who in turn is responsible to a city council.

This detachment does nothing to enhance the public safety perception of citizens. While officer safety concerns and union involvement often promote the twoperson car strategy, research suggests that such a strategy is far less productive than solo units and no more likely to reduce injuries for officers (Conkrite, 1983). In addition, two-person patrol cars are no more effective in catching criminals or reducing crime. 36 Arrest Discretion of Police Officers This culture of traditional policing has been the target of sociologists trying to explain the fundamental problem of police abuse (Klockars, 1985).

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