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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Atlantic Salmon in Maine

End result of the pervasive and big decline of Atlantic salmon populations in Maine over the last one hundred fifty years, and since they're with regards to extinction, a accomplished statewide motion can be taken now to make sure their survival. The populations of Atlantic salmon have declined greatly, from an expected part million grownup salmon returning to U.S. rivers every year within the early 1800s to probably as few as 1,000 in 2001. The file recommends imposing a formalized decision-making method of identify priorities, evaluation innovations and coordinate plans for holding and restoring the salmon.

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Growth and size determine the timing of the parr-smolt transformation. Parr are young salmon with 8–11 vertical dark bands on their sides. Transforma- 1Fish that return after 1 year are termed 1SW (one sea-winter) fish; 2SW and 3SW mean fish that spend two and three winters at sea, respectively. 31 SALMON LIFE HISTORY AND ECOLOGY TABLE 2-1 Stages in the Life Cycle of the Atlantic Salmona Term for Stage Begins Duration Appearance Behavior Egg Mid-October to Mid-November 2–6 weeks Amber, 6 mm diameter Buried in gravel Eyed egg November 3–5 months Two black eyes Twitch Alevin or sac-fry At hatching in March or April 5–8 weeks Mostly transparent with large yolk-sacs Remain in gravel Fry Mid-May 1 summer Pigmented Emerge from gravel and feed Parr 0+ parr 1 and 1+ parr 2 and 2+ parr 3 and 3+ parr July 1 July 1 January 1 January 1 January 1 6 1 1 1 Stocky with black vertical parr marks Territorial and solitary Smolt 1+ smolt 2+ smolt 3+ smolt April 1 year old 2 years old 3 years old 3 months Streamlined and silvery Schooling and migratory Post-smolt July 1 6 months Silvery Marine and migratory Salmon January 1 of first year at sea Variable Subadult and adult Feeding migration months year year year aThe terms used reflect an arbitrary hatching date of April 1 (equivalent to birth), and many stage increments are arbitrarily set at beginning and end dates of the calendar year (January 1 and December 31).

The declines led to the listing of Atlantic salmon in eight Maine rivers (Cove Brook, Dennys, Ducktrap, East Machias, Machias, Narraguagus, Pleasant, and Sheepscot) as an endangered distinct population segment (DPS) under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on November 17, 2000 (50 CFR 17, 224). Figure 1-1 and Table 1-1 show New England rivers with Atlantic salmon; the eight so-called DPS rivers are identified.

The declines led to the listing of Atlantic salmon in eight Maine rivers (Cove Brook, Dennys, Ducktrap, East Machias, Machias, Narraguagus, Pleasant, and Sheepscot) as an endangered distinct population segment (DPS) under the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) on November 17, 2000 (50 CFR 17, 224). Figure 1-1 and Table 1-1 show New England rivers with Atlantic salmon; the eight so-called DPS rivers are identified.

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