By Laurent Dubois
The 1st and in simple terms profitable slave revolution within the Americas started in 1791 while millions of brutally exploited slaves rose up opposed to their masters on Saint-Domingue, the main ecocnomic colony within the eighteenth-century Atlantic international. inside of many years, the slave insurgents pressured the French directors of the colony to emancipate them, a choice ratified via progressive Paris in 1794. This victory was once a gorgeous problem to the order of master/slave family members through the Americas, together with the southern usa, reinforcing the main fervent hopes of slaves and the worst fears of masters. yet, peace eluded Saint-Domingue as British and Spanish forces attacked the colony. A charismatic ex-slave named Toussaint Louverture got here to France's reduction, elevating armies of others like himself and defeating the invaders. eventually Napoleon, fearing the large political energy of Toussaint, despatched an enormous project to weigh down him and subjugate the ex-slaves. After many battles, a decisive victory over the French secured the start of Haiti and the everlasting abolition of slavery from the land. The independence of Haiti reshaped the Atlantic global by means of resulting in the French sale of Louisiana to the USA and the growth of the Cuban sugar economic system. Laurent Dubois weaves the tales of slaves, loose humans of African descent, prosperous whites, and French directors into an unforgettable story of rebel, struggle, heroism, and victory. He establishes the Haitian Revolution as a foundational second within the heritage of democracy and human rights. (20040323)
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Extra resources for Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution
They came from homelands throughout the continent. Early on, many slaves came to Saint-Domingue from Senegambia, home to ﬂedgling French slave ports. During the ﬁrst quarter of the eighteenth century, the major source of arrivals shifted to the Bight of Benin. Some of these slaves were captured in wars initiated by the Yoruba Kingdom of Oyo, others in raids carried out by the kingdom of Dahomey. A third source was a series of ports along the lagoons of West Africa. The most important was the port of Allada, which came to control a cluster of nearby ports.
The number of plantations removing molasses grew; in 1730 there were 5 in the north, but by 1751 there were 182, compared with 124 that did not reﬁne sugar. 27 Sugarcane production required good land, irrigation, a large labor force, and expensive equipment. It promised major proﬁts, but it required an initial investment far greater than tobacco or indigo. Once the sugar boom hit Saint-Domingue, there was a rush to purchase the best land and a vertiginous rise in prices. 28 As the fertile land in the colony was bought up for sugar plantations, some whites were left behind.
5 Revolution was still years away when Philipeau wrote again to Madame de Mauger in 1787. He complained again about the “abominations being committed” by a new manager assigned to the plantation, who took little interest in the work of the slaves and spent his days entertaining in his house. He was selling cotton grown on the plantation, along with lumber cut from the Mauger lands, for his own proﬁt. “Your manager will grow rich at your expense,” Philipeau warned. The slaves, meanwhile, were “dying of hunger” even though the warehouses of the plantation were full of food.