By Marcel Mulder
The sector of man-made membrane technology and expertise is an lively, transforming into box concerning an interdisciplinary mix of polymer chemistry, actual chemistry, and chemical engineering. a few membrane techniques are quite good understood, and feature been commercialised for a few time period. different membrane methods have just recently been hired in advertisement functions, and nonetheless different strategies are just in formative examine levels. This quantity supplies a entire compendium of the elemental ideas within the box of artificial membranes. the next subject matters are coated: simple features of membrane methods; fabrics and fabric houses; membrane training and characterisation; membrane shipping; focus polarisation and fouling; method and module layout. the second one version of this well-established textual content has been significantly improved and up to date, and plenty of chapters now comprise sections giving solved and unsolved difficulties. viewers: This e-book is usually recommended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate scholars, in addition to a finished reference for engineers, scientists, and technical administration.
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Only 0-8 mg is required to prevent indefinitely the coagulation of 5 ml of rabbit blood. Lenggenhager also pointed out that one may apply tincture of iodine to a leech wound without feeling any pain, indicating that the saliva also has a local anaesthetic effect, but the substance responsible has not been identified. It is a general character of blood-sucking leeches that they feed infrequently but take large quantities of blood at one time. Hirudo normally takes two to five times its own weight of blood and Haemadipsa, the land leech, may take ten times its own weight.
The products of the nephridia are used to moisten the suckers, and are conserved by special frills and muscular rims on the suckers themselves. 5. PHARYNGOBDELLAE The ERPOBDELLIDAE, sometimes known as the worm-leeches, are freshwater or amphibious leeches which have lost the power of penetrating the tissues of a host and sucking blood. The pharynx has muscular ridges homologous with those in the Hirudidae, but no jaws or teeth. , are swallowed whole. The gut is simple and without diverticula. The plan of the reproductive system is fairly typical, except that the testes are concentrated in the posterior octoculata one third of the body and are very abundant.
One is that typical leeches are blood-sucking ectoparasites and they are remarkably adept at removing from the host a very considerable quantity of blood without being noticed. This requires sharp, precise cutting equipment and the assistance of a local anaesthetic. Secondly, the blood must be prevented from clotting in the gut, for during locomotion the leech becomes alternately short and thick and long and thin and this would be impossible if the gut contained a mass of clotted blood. Finally, a series of investigators failed to identify any proteolytic enzymes in the gut of Hirudo and it appears that the function of digestion has been taken over entirely by symbiotic bacteria.