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Extra resources for Beryllium Science and Technology: Volume 2
In addition to the inert atmosphere provided by argon, argon influences heat transfer within the furnace and within the conditions present in these experiments, probably contributed to achieving sound ingots. They also investigated improvement of mechanical properties by extruding centrifugal ingots at 500°C and obtained properties listed in Table 1. A large range of ductility improvement was reported, dependent upon the combined effect of deformation and recrystallization. Although Table 1. 8 Casting 39 they annealed extruded product at 720, 850, and 1050°C, no correlation was given between heat treatment and mechanical properties.
Many hollow shapes are isopressed directly from powder, and others employ hollow preforms made by cold-isopressing. This two-step process provides finished parts closer to final dimension than is possible by the single-step hot-isopressing process. ) The effect on pressure distribution is particularly significant when porous compacts are being made. 7% elongation; beryllium of this density is reportedr 22 > to have nearly double the fracture toughness of fully dense metal. 3. Sintering Although most beryllium is consolidated by hot-pressing, there has been some production of sintered parts.
Heat extraction parallel to the thinnest dimension Casting 37 will be most rapid, resulting in rapid solidification and the pinching off of the solidification fronts to form the center-line crack. Mold geometry is critical in this regard. Although they recognized that the ingot width: height ratio is critical in optimizing directional solidification, it is also important to have a symmetric section parallel to the solidification front. Typical defects associated with VIM include shrinkage pipe, gas porosity, microcracks, center-line defects, cold shuts, inclusions, and macrosegregation of metallic impurities.