By Patrick W. Carey
The final 20 centuries of Christian background have witnessed the emergence of various theological traditions. lots of those traditions this present day have particularly minor importance, whereas others stay a colourful a part of modern non secular tradition. And whereas a few theologians, similar to Martin Luther, Thomas Aquinas, and John Calvin, are fairly popular, others became extra imprecise. This reference presents alphabetically prepared entries for greater than 450 Christian theologians from antiquity to the shut of the 20th century. Entries are constrained to theologians who died prior to 1994, whilst this undertaking was once all started. integrated are profiles for crucial and consultant theologians from the Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant traditions, with targeted realization to theologians of the English-speaking world.
The quantity covers these members whose paintings was once essentially in systematic and non secular theology, or church historians whose paintings was once mainly theological. at any time when attainable, each one access offers easy biographical details, a short account of the person's schooling and profession, and a precis of the individual's most vital contributions to theology. The entries variety in size from 250 to 2,000 phrases, counting on the importance of the theologian's paintings. each one access closes with a bibliography of basic and secondary assets, whereas the amount concludes with a particular, basic bibliography.
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376/77, although there were already two orthodox bishops struggling over it, thereby initiating a schismatic movement in the East. He and his followers were condemned and deposed in Rome ea. 378, and by Eastern synods and imperial legislation in the late 370s and 380s. Apollinarius claimed that Christ has no human soul, the vital and intellectual functions of the Savior being provided directly by the indwelling divine Word. For Apollinarius, Christ is one incarnate divine person (or hypostasis), and one unique divine and human organism or nature (physis).
In particular they wanted to restore the thought of St. Augustine,* whom they believed had been neglected in the theology of grace. Following Michael Baius,* Arnauld emphasized the victorious and efficacious nature of grace to such an extent that he made grace humanly irresistible in the process. In 1643, Arnauld's theology became a bone of contention in French Catholicism when he published his De la frequente communion, which emphasized the necessity of scrupulously preparing right dispositions for the reception of communion.
Eliot, For Lance/or Andrewes (New York, 1929); Maurice F. , 1978); Trevor A. Owen, Lance/(Jt Andrewes (Boston, 1981 ), Nicholas Lossky, LancehJt Andrewes, The Preacher, trans. Andrew Louth (Oxford, 1991 ). Robert B. Slocum ANSELM OF BEC AND CANTERBURY (1033, Aosta-21 April 1109, England). Anselm was a pious boy, but, as Eadmer, his friend and first biographer puts it: "With health of body, youth and worldly well-being smiling upon him, he began little by little to cool in the fervor of his desire for a religious lifeso much so that he began to desire to go the way of the world rather than to leave the world for a monastic life.