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Would such a solution be acidic or basic? 1 Molecules are the building blocks of life. The Chemistry of Carbon. Because individual carbon atoms can form multiple covalent bonds, organic molecules can be quite complex. 2 Proteins perform the chemistry of the cell. The Many Functions of Proteins. Proteins can be catalysts, transporters, supporters, and regulators. Amino Acids Are the Building Blocks of Proteins. Proteins are long chains of various combinations of amino acids. A Protein’s Function Depends on the Shape of the Molecule.

The nucleotide subunits of DNA and RNA are made up of three elements: a five-carbon sugar, an organic nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group. 14 The structure of a nucleic acid and the organic nitrogen-containing bases. (a) In a nucleic acid, nucleotides are linked to one another via phosphodiester bonds, with organic bases protruding from the chain. (b) The organic nitrogenous bases can be either purines or pyrimidines. In DNA, thymine replaces the uracil found in RNA.

Proteins Are Polymers of Amino Acids In addition to its R group, each amino acid, when ionized, has a positive amino (NH3+) group at one end and a negative carboxyl (COO–) group at the other end. 5 The peptide bond. A peptide bond forms when the —NH2 end of one amino acid joins to the —COOH end of another. Because of the partial double-bond nature of peptide bonds, the resulting peptide chain cannot rotate freely around these bonds. forming a covalent bond. 5). The two amino acids linked by such a bond are not free to rotate around the N—C linkage because the peptide bond has a partial double-bond character, unlike the N—C and C—C bonds to the central carbon of the amino acid.

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