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When the guard cells swell, the stomate closes, and this prevents the leaf from drying out. Between these protective epidermal layers, the leaf is filled with thinwalled parenchyma cells containing chloroplasts. Photosynthesis occurs within these cells, and evolution has produced modifications to aid this process. For instance, the cells in the layer just beneath the upper epidermis (closest to the incoming sunlight) are lined up like the logs driven into the ground to construct the stockade of a frontier fort.

Science News 158, no. 9 (26 August 2000): 140. Purvis, William. Lichens. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2000. Life Cycle, Human The human life cycle begins at fertilization, when an egg cell inside a woman and a sperm cell from a man fuse to form a one-celled zygote. Over the next few days, the single, large cell divides many times to form a hollow ball of smaller cells. On the sixth day after fertilization, this hollow ball burrows into the wall of the mother’s uterus, or womb.

The tubular fluid next passes through a hairpin turn called the loop of Henle, which helps the nephron return more water to the bloodstream rather than allowing it to be lost in the urine. How this works will be explained later. Tubular fluid then enters the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Here further transport of particular ions may occur, depending on whether the concentration of that ion in the blood is too high or too low. For example, if the pH of the blood is too low, hydrogen ions (H+) are transported out of the blood and into the tubular fluid.

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