By Katsuhisa Furukawa, James Revill, Malcolm Dando, Koos van der Bruggen, David B. Sawaya, Benjamin Rusek, Flippa Lentzos, Jonathan B. Tucker, Brian Rappert, Chandr Gould
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Extra info for Biosecurity: Origins, Transformations and Practices
Rather in examining the many ways in which biosecurity is advanced and contested, we hope to aid readers in thinking about how to approach its meaning and place. php 2 This contrasting way of thinking is paralleled elsewhere. The later sections of this chapter detail how biosecurity has been identiﬁed with threats in the US. US Alliance for Biosecurity, for instance, is a collaboration among more than a dozen pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies who promote medical responses to deliberately initiated disease outbreaks.
One of the consequences of this is that ‘the boundaries of private insurability dissolve, since such insurance is based on the fundamental potential for compensation of damages and on the possibility of estimating their probability by means of quantitative risk calculation’ (2002: 41). 7 ‘The speeding up of modernisation’, Beck says, ‘has produced a gulf between the world of quantiﬁable risk in which we think and act, and the world of non-quantiﬁable insecurities that we are creating’ (2002: 40).
Yet, the dream of an ever more complete reduction of risk, of the belief in science, probability and statistics to objectify and measure, to calculate and prevent, has been challenged by developments in the latter half of the twentieth century. The challenge of uncontrollable risks Ulrich Beck argues that the latter half of the twentieth century saw the introduction of a new kind of risk, one that cannot be managed through technical decision-making. Environmental and health hazards like global warming, mad cow disease and genetically modiﬁed food, ecological catastrophes such as Bophal and Chernobyl, global ﬁnancial crises, and mass-casualty terrorist attacks constitute ‘unnatural, human-made, manufactured uncertainties and hazards beyond boundaries’ (2002: 41).