Download Black & Decker The Complete Guide: Maintain Your Pool & Spa: by Rich Binsacca PDF

By Rich Binsacca

Greater upkeep potential extra delight in your pool or spa.

Black & Decker the entire consultant: retain Your Pool & Spa will either motivate and train readers at the sensible issues of possessing and holding a house swimming pool, sizzling bath, or leisure whirlpool.

For these contemplating a leisure water characteristic, an exhilarating gallery bankruptcy and a planning/design bankruptcy will convey the newest traits and items, and exact new how you can combine a pool or spa into the panorama. The booklet additionally contains an summary of every form of constitution, together with above-ground and in-ground pools, stand-alone whirlpools, built-in pool/spa installations, and pool homes and add-ons. For readers who already personal a pool or spa, long, certain chapters on uncomplicated upkeep, water caliber, seasonal maintenance, and regimen upkeep supply every little thing had to retain water beneficial properties in reliable working situation. Even the mechanical systems—pumps, warmers, drains and skimmers—are lined extensive. With this publication, no pool or spa proprietor might want to pay money for a certified pool-care provider, and should by no means have to name a repairman.

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Read or Download Black & Decker The Complete Guide: Maintain Your Pool & Spa: Repair & Upkeep Made Easy (Black & Decker Complete Guide) PDF

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2. Description of the Prior Art In recent years, expectations for solar cells as a clean energy source have been raised, in view of the global warming, acid rain. ozone layer destruction, and other such environmental destruction. For the wide usage of solar cells to occur, improvement of the photo-electric conversion efficiency and reduction of the cost are most important, that purpose, solar cells made of compound semiconductors of Group III-V materials such as GaAs, InP. Group II-VI materials such as CdS/Cu2S, CdS/CdTe, and Group I-III-VIa materials such as CuInS2.

As the substrate, a heat-resistant barium borosilicate glass is employed which has a very low alkali metal content and a high softening point. 55 In the manufacturing of the compound semiconductor solar cell by the coating and firing method, it is important that each of the n-type compound semiconductor layer p-type compound semiconductor layer, and electrode layer have uniform thickness, a smooth surface. and no pin holes! Especially if the n-type CdS semiconductor layer formed directly on the substrate is uniform, smooth and non- porus, the adherence of the lto the substrate is improved, resulting in an increase of the light transmittance.

The pin-holes left after coating and firing of the layers caused an Increase of the sheet resistance. Especially, if pin-holes were formed in the p-type CdTe layer, the carbon particles of the carbon electrode layer formed thereon penetrated into the pin-holes up to the CdS layer under the CdTe layer, causing internal short circuiting or current leakage, fatally damaging the solar cell performance. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION It is an object of the present invention to provide a new method of manufacturing compound semiconductor solar cells comprising ntlypc and p-type compound semiconductors and electrode layers having improved performance, uniform characteristics, and Iow production cost.

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