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By M.K.H. Siddiqui

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As soon as there is an excess of dye present, it will be physically adsorbed on to the exchange-saturated clay. The quantity of dye thus held will be a function of the concentration of dye remaining in solution after the portion held by ionic exchange has been taken out. 133who observed that the sorbate does not sensibly displace H + or Na + ions during fixation on the montmorillonite, but protects these ions from the subsequent action of mineral reagents. However, the quantity of colorant fixed was greater than the exchange capacity of montmorillonite.

Fiscard98 has shown that dehydration of acid-activated montmorillonite at 500°C provokes formation of large-size pores, >100 Ä, with corresponding decrease in the number of mean-size pores, ~ 2 0 Ä, and final disappearance of the smallest pores, 10-15 Ä. 99· 10° The adsorption capacity of a fuller's earth may also be increased by an extrusion process in which the clay is pugged and forced through slots under high pressure. The treatment causes the particles to develop a high surface area by rearrangement within the mass.

When these clays are dried at about 300°-350°C water is driven off from their channels resulting in a great increase in the internal surface area;16 at the same time the structure remains intact. Fuller's earths containing these minerals are thus activated by heat,6 whereas montmorillonites and illites are usually acid-activated. However, the physical structure of most of the bleaching clays is generally modified when heated to 500°C after the acid-treatment, on account of the partial dehydration of the minerals.

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