By Sara Fanning
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Extra resources for Caribbean Crossing: African Americans and the Haitian Emigration Movement
Naval treaties slowly reduced the need for warship escorts that cargo ships had previously required. Even without the constant threat from pirates and privateers, the Atlantic crossing was a treacherous undertaking until the refinement of the marine chronometer in 1767. For the first time, navigators could discern their longitudinal as well as their latitudinal coordinates. At the same time, the demise of the feudal system in Europe was freeing up millions whose forefathers had been bound to their masters’ estates.
Displaced by 22â•‡ /â•‡ migration to haiti the Napoleonic Wars and a series of bad harvests, German speakers all along the Rhine River in the states of Baden, Wurttemberg, and Alsace began to migrate in the fall of 1816. 15 German-speaking migrants had been leaving for the New World since the mid-eighteenth century, when many arrived in Pennsylvania as redemptioners, indentured servants who had contracted to work for a set number of years in exchange for passage money. But the numbers of redemptioners never compared to the tens of thousands leaving in 1816 and 1817.
For the first time, navigators could discern their longitudinal as well as their latitudinal coordinates. At the same time, the demise of the feudal system in Europe was freeing up millions whose forefathers had been bound to their masters’ estates. Similarly, the end to the period of European warfare that began with the Seven Years’ War in the 1750s and raged all the way through the Napoleonic era released hundreds of thousands of conscripts. S. port towns. The 1820s began the first mass migration, with more than 140,000 migrants settling in the United States during this decade alone, as compared to the 250,000 migrants who landed in the thirty-year period from 1790 to 1820.